Is science dependent on philosophy
Ontology deals with everything there is, because it asks, firstly, what it means that something exists, and secondly, which categories of objects exist and how they relate to one another. To answer the first question, the concept of existence and its relationship to other central concepts is analyzed. Particularly important is the connection with the concept of identity and the role of identity criteria, that is, the question of whether, if one wants to regard a type of object as existing, one must be able to specify the conditions under which it is true that a thing of this type is identical is with a thing of this kind. Another central concept is that of reality; The problem is whether everything that exists is real, or whether what is only possible also exists, and whether there are non-existent objects. In the course of the second question, the main discussion is whether, in addition to objects that only occur once, there are also those that are exemplified many times, i.e. universals; whether there is a type of object on which the others are unilaterally dependent (substances), and if so, of what type this dependency is (e.g. causal); whether the concept of necessary properties (essences) makes sense and what the relationship of composite objects to their parts is.
The question of the existence and structure of objects in the world also raises logical-philosophical questions that are the subject of formal ontology. Axiomatizations of nominalistic theories have been discussed with instruments of modern logic for about 60 years. The problem of reduction between ontological categories can be treated as a reduction between theories. A special problem is the question of the nature of abstract objects in the context of mathematics; it connects the ontology with the philosophy of mathematics.
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