Charlemagne is underestimated

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Matthias Becher



1. Landscape and 'domination' -
Westphalia in the early and high Middle Ages

The word 'Westphalia' has both an ethnic and a spatial meaning. In the early Middle Ages, the focus was initially on one, later on the other. The Westphalia are first mentioned together with Engern and Ostfalen or Eastern Saxony as a subgroup of the Saxons in 775 in connection with the second great incursion of Charlemagne into Saxony. Nevertheless, a large part of the older research believed that this three-way division of the Saxons into 'Heerschaften', contingent associations, was much older and existed as early as the 6th century when the Saxons advanced south from the North Sea coast.

But there is also the assumption that the Saxons came into being through a voluntary amalgamation of gentile groups, in fact the word 'Saxons' is a collective term used by the Romans and Franks for a conglomerate of smaller peoples that were not necessarily closely related to one another . Therefore, smaller Saxon groups such as the Bardengauer, Wigmodier or Bortharians would only have come together in the face of the Frankish threat under Charlemagne to form the aforementioned large groups in order to be able to offer better resistance. It is fitting that the three groups are mentioned in other Franconian sources of the time, including in the "Capitulare Saxonicum".

The Saxons were not a people with central institutions like the Franks or Lombards, but split up into a multitude of peoples, which were held together by a common belief in gods like Saxnot and Wodan. At the top of the various ethnic groups were leaders who can be addressed as petty kings, princes or clan heads. In the event of war, they will draw a leader among themselves. But the question of whether he was at the head of all Saxons or only headed a few peoples must remain open. The function of the so-called tribal assembly in Marklo (probably near Rehme) as a central authority is also uncertain. In any case, the Saxons did not offer any coordinated resistance to Charlemagne when he began to conquer their country in 772. Rather, as mentioned at the beginning, in 775 Westphalia, Engern and Ostfalen are attested among their own leaders who also individually opposed the Franks.

The word 'Westphalia' has only been used as a geographical name since the middle of the 10th century, initially only to describe a district in more detail ("in pago Westfala" or "in pago Westfalon"). The name was only used independently since the middle of the 11th century to describe the area between Oldenburg in the north and the Ruhr in the south as well as the landscapes of Drente and Twente in the west, which today belong to the Netherlands, and a line running east from Werl to the Weser To denote east. Here Westphalia bordered on Engern, but this name disappeared in the course of the 12th century, so that Westphalia then extended to the Weser.
 

2. The Saxons from the 5th to the 8th century

The Saxons are usually recorded in Roman sources as "pirates" or better looters who visited the coasts of Gaul and Britain by ship. They continued their attacks in the 5th century, but some of them were also in Roman service. The most famous company is the translation of Saxony together with Angling to Britain in the middle of the 5th century. On the continent, the Saxons in the Franconian Empire of the Merovingians created a new powerful neighbor instead of the Roman Empire at the end of the 5th century.
Like the Roman reports, the Frankish reports about the Saxons have something of frontal reports about them. One saw the Saxons approaching, as it were, without being able to look inland. According to later legendary sources, in 531 the Saxons helped King Theuderich I defeat the Thuringians. As a thank you, they would have received their residences, which in this case probably cannot be located in what will later be Westphalia. Theuderich's son Theudebert I. counts them in any case among the peoples he ruled. But already in the middle of the century there were some armed conflicts, at the end of which Chlothar I imposed an annual tribute of 500 cows on the Saxons. In 632/33 Dagobert I issued them the annual tax and in return obliged them to defend the Franconian border against the incursions of Slavic revolution.

Towards the end of the 7th century, what would later become Westphalia was first captured in a spring. The so-called cosmographer of Ravenna described the area of ​​Ems (?), Pader, Lippe and Leine as Saxon. The Saxons took advantage of the weakness of the Frankish empire, which was shaken by internal conflicts, to expand in the area of ​​what would later become Westphalia and to conquer the Bruktuarier area south of the middle Lippe in 694/95. In 715 they attacked the neighboring "Hatterun" district on the right bank of the Rhine. However, after Karl Martell had risen to become a Franconian housekeeper and de facto sole ruler in 717/18, the tide turned again. As early as 718 he undertook a campaign of revenge up to the Weser, which was followed by others. In 738 he carried out a large expedition into Saxony from the mouth of the Lippe and again forced tribute payments and the placement of hostages. There may also have been attempts at proselytizing at that time.

After Karl Martell's death in 741, armed conflicts soon broke out again. In 743/44 his sons Karlmann and Pippin appeared in eastern Saxony, conquered the Hohenseeburg (near Dortmund) and subjugated a Saxon prince named Theoderich. In 748 Pippin forced the renewal of the tribute of 500 cattle and also a very superficial Christianization. After his elevation to King of the Franks in 751, Pippin undertook a major campaign against the Saxons from the Lower Rhine. Two years later, Saxon warriors visited northern Hesse and destroyed 30 churches that had been built as part of the Bonifatian mission. In 758 Pippin reappeared in western Saxony and subjugated the population, who now had to pay an annual tribute of 300 horses.
 

3. The submission of the Saxons through
the Franks under Charlemagne

In 772, Karl made an advance against the Saxons from the Middle Rhine in order to punish them for their constant raids, as his biographer Einhard found around 825. Karl conquered the Eresburg (today Marsberg) and destroyed the nearby Irminsul, probably the most important Saxon place of worship in the form of a tree column, which was revered as a pillar of space. Then Karl advanced to the upper Weser and had hostages taken before he returned to the Franconian Empire in the autumn. At that time he was probably not planning a permanent subjugation of the Saxons, but the Saxons were to be intimidated and the helplessness of their gods demonstrated. His company, however, led to an escalation of violence: During Karl's war against the Lombards in Italy in 773/74, the Saxons undertook a campaign of revenge and attacked numerous Christian churches in northern Hesse, including the Fritzlar monastery and the temporary bishopric of Büraburg.

Only now does Karl seem to have decided to subjugate the Saxons and make them Christians by force. In the spring of 775 he marched from the Lower Rhine over the Eresburg to the Weser, forced the crossing over the river and then advanced as far as Ostfalen (Wolfenbüttel). Here the East Saxons submitted to their leader Hessi and held hostages, while the Engern under Brun took this step when Karl was already on the march back. The Westphalians tried to prevent him from crossing the Weser again at Lübbecke, but also had to admit defeat and take hostages. There is much to suggest that the Frankish king annexed the area from the Rhine along the Lippe to the Eresburg. This gave him a quick connection to Hesse and Thuringia via the Hellweg.
In the years 776 and 778, the Saxons, led by the Westphalian nobleman Widukind, took advantage of the fact that the Frankish king was staying in Italy and Spain to take action against the conquerors. But the Franks reacted quickly on both occasions and defeated the Saxons, who submitted and promised to convert to Christianity. A large imperial assembly took place in Paderborn in 777, at which numerous Saxons were baptized. The second setback led to an even more intense warfare by the Franks. In 779 Karl advanced as far as the Elbe and in 780 was able to hold another army meeting at the Lippequellen near Lippspringe. Here he divided the country into mission districts and counties, i.e. ecclesiastical and political administrative districts. Two years later, at a new meeting in Lippspringe, he was even able to appoint Saxon nobles as counts. In the following years, too, the majority of the Saxon nobility were on the Frankish side, while the resistance was mainly borne by the free, even if it was organized by nobles like Widukind.
In 782, the Franks had apparently prevailed. At that time 'all' Saxons except Widukind came to a meeting at the Lippequellen, Saxon nobles were appointed counts, and a Frankish-Saxon contingent against the Slavs was set in motion. But Widukind ruined all successes when the king had left the country again. The Saxon warriors turned against their Frankish comrades in the Süntelgebirge and almost completely destroyed them. Karl returned to Saxony immediately, while Widukind fled to the Danes. At Verden an der Aller, the king forced the extradition of the remaining ringleaders, allegedly 4,500 in number, and had them all executed. Even if this figure is a gross exaggeration of the Reichsannals, it shows the brutality with which the dispute was conducted.
Karl gave up any thought of a peaceful mission. With the "Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae", a draconian special law, probably enacted in 782, Charles wanted to subject the Saxons to both his rule and the Christian faith. He threatened even minor offenses such as disregard for Christian Lent or pagan cremation with death. The Saxon people could of course not be won over to Christianity, but militarily Karl had success: he defeated the Saxons in two open field battles in 783 and also remained victorious in a cavalry battle in 784. In 785 he pursued Widukind as far as the Lower Elbe and was able to persuade him to give up. On Christmas of the same year Widukind was baptized in the royal palace of Attigny. Once again the Saxons seemed finally defeated, so that again Saxon contingents took part in the Franconian campaigns of the following years.
As in 778, Charles's military defeat elsewhere gave the Saxons the signal to revolt again. In 791, Charles's first move against the Avars in the Hungarian lowlands was unsuccessful. a Saxon contingent had also participated. A year later the Saxons rose. Again the clashes lasted for several years. So in 797 the king even moved as far as the North Sea coast at Hadeln and again accepted the submission of the 'entire' Saxon people. In the same year he issued the "Capitulare Saxonicum" in Aachen, in which he allowed Westphalia, Engern and Ostfalen to participate in legislation and thus put the rest of the peoples of the Franconian Empire on an equal footing. But it was not until 804 that all resistance was broken.

The general reason for the long-lasting resistance of the Saxons is their political fragmentation: there were no central organizations with which the Franks could have concluded a treaty, no capital to conquer, and no king whose capture would have been decisive. In addition, the various classes behaved differently: While the nobility mostly leaned towards the Franks, the resistance was apparently borne by the free and semi-free.
      
Old Saxony at the time of Charlemagne
 

4. Saxony and Westphalia as part of the
Franconian Empire: administration, law, church constitution

From 780, Saxony was divided into counties, so that the country was brought into line with the rest of the Franconian Empire in military and judicial matters. The appointment of local counts from 782 promoted a process of social differentiation, because a count was usually able to improve his social position, while other nobles had to fear for their position. Equipping the counts with royal property accelerated this development, because the royal property was created through confiscations, i.e. the expropriation of insurgents.
The Franks also used the means of legislation to promote the integration of the subject areas: with the help of the two Saxon capitularies of 782 and 797, they intervened considerably in the coexistence of the Saxons. In addition, there was the "Lex Saxonum" in 802/03, which put the Saxons politically and legally on an equal footing with the other peoples of the Franconian Empire. For the Saxons, who had previously managed without writing, the written form of the legislation meant a considerable encroachment on their traditions. In addition, the Franconian influence was noticeable in many of the provisions of the "Lex Saxonum". Above all, however, Charlemagne strengthened the position of the nobility vis-à-vis the free and semi-free.
      
View from the cathedral tower to the excavation area of ​​the Paderborn Palatinate, before 1968
The various mission areas gradually developed into dioceses. In 805 the missionary Liudger, who was closely associated with the old Anglo-Saxon mission center in Utrecht, was ordained bishop in Münster. Missionaries from Liège in particular were involved in the Osnabrück area. According to the late medieval historian Heinrich von Herford, the Diocese of Osnabrück is said to have been the oldest Saxon diocese. In 803/04 we met the first bishop Wiho here, albeit in forged royal documents. In Paderborn, Hathumar, who was raised in Würzburg, was ordained first bishop in 805/06. In Minden, the Fulda missionary commissioner Erkanbert has been proven as a bishop since 790; he initially worked from Hamelin. A new church was founded in Minden between 802 and 812 as the center of the diocese.
      
Grave of St. Liudger in the crypt of the Benedictine abbey Werden a. d. Dysentery
The Saxon dioceses were divided into the church provinces of Mainz and Cologne according to the ties given by the mission; almost the entire south of the country fell to the archdioceses themselves. Münster, Osnabrück, Minden and Bremen belonged to Cologne, to Mainz: Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Paderborn and Verden. Important monasteries were also founded: in 815 Corbie founded a monk's cell in Hethis, which cannot be precisely located. This new Corbie or Corvey was relocated to the western bank of the Weser near Höxter in 822. It gained independence from its mother monastery in 826 with free abbot election and immunity. As early as 789, the nobleman Waltger founded the Herford convent, which he placed under the supervision of Corvey in 822.
      
Facade of the Corveyer Westwerk
Above all, women's convents and canonical monasteries such as Liesborn, Freckenhorst, Neuenheerse and many others were built in Saxony. Numerous translations of relics, especially from western France, strengthened the population's bond with the new religion.
 

5. Westphalia in the 9th and 10th centuries

After the death of Louis the Pious, the Franconian empire was divided among his sons. Saxony fell to his second son Ludwig the Germans in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, although the eldest Lothar also had many supporters in the country and had also supported an uprising movement of the lower classes directed against the nobility on Ludwig's side, whose participants themselves' Stellinga 'called. In addition to Saxony, Bavaria, Alemannia, eastern Franconia and Thuringia also belonged to Ludwig's eastern empire. The king resided mainly in Frankfurt and Regensburg. In contrast, Saxony and Westphalia played the role of secondary countries. After all, Ludwig the German held a court day in Minden in 852, after which he did not enter the country again. The Carolingians only came to Saxony to fight the Slavs on the other side of the Elbe and Saale. In 889, on the occasion of a campaign against the Abodrites, Arnolf of Carinthia visited the Corvey monastery.
In the 9th century only a few noble families emerged from the darkness of tradition. First of all the so-called Cobbonen or Ekbertiner. The first known representative of the family was Count Ekbert, who died after 811, to whom contemporaries even granted the title of duke. His widow Ida donated a church in Herzfeld an der Lippe at the couple's grave site. The two sons, Ekbert and Cobbo, were also among the leading families in the Franconian Empire. Widukind, the leader of the Westphalia against Charlemagne, is said to have worked in the country after his submission and conversion and founded a monastery in Enger, where he is also said to be buried.
      
Widukind's grave relief in the church of Enger
His descendants, namely his son Waltger and his grandson Waltbert, also belonged to the imperial aristocracy and served the Carolingians as counts. The so-called Immedinger are also considered to be Widukind's descendants. Count Dietrich was one of them, who as count administered the Bünde and Enger area. His daughter married Heinrich Liudolfing, whose family was above all wealthy in eastern Saxony, but also had older family ties to Westphalia, particularly to the Ekbertines. Above all, however, the Liudolfingers were related by marriage to the Carolingians, probably an important prerequisite for Heinrich's election as king in 919.
      
Sarcophagus of St. Ida in the church in Herzfeld, around 820
Despite its ties to Westphalia, this region played a minor role under Heinrich and his successors, the Ottonians. The centers of the empire were in the Harz region, in the Frankfurt area and in Lorraine, especially around Aachen and Cologne. In the course of the year, the king moved from one central landscape to the next and also crossed the regions in between, such as Westphalia. So the king stayed here quite often. The dukes of Saxony from the Billunger dynasty, who were wealthy mainly in eastern Saxony and Engern, had little weight in Westphalia. In 953 at the latest, King Otto the Great had combined Saxony into a duchy and handed it over to his confidante Hermann Billung. His descendants should provide the Saxon duke by 1106.
 

6. Westphalia as part of the Saxon
Duchy

In Westphalia there were numerous smaller noble families in the 10th and 11th centuries. Among them stood out the Counts of Werl, who had count rights and extensive property from Friesland in the north to the Sauerland in the south. The bishops also remained important power factors, the most important of which was probably the Archbishop of Cologne with a strong position in southern Westphalia. The Ottonians strengthened the power of the bishops and around the year 1000 gave them more count rights, not only in Westphalia. In fact, this strengthened the power of those nobles who, on behalf of the bishops, exercised jurisdiction and military power over their possessions as bishops. In the 11th and the beginning of the 12th century, the Counts of Werl provided the bailiffs of the Paderborn bishopric.

When the Ottonians became extinct in 1024 and the Salians came to power, the Saxons' distance from kingship grew. The gradually built up tensions discharged in 1073 in the Saxon uprising. Especially aristocrats from the eastern parts of the country were involved, while the Westphalians were more neutral. In 1075 Heinrich IV was able to defeat his opponents at Homburg an der Unstrut - but not for long: in the investiture dispute, most of the Saxon nobles were among the supporters of Pope Gregory VII and his successors. They bitterly fought Heinrich and supported the opposing kings Rudolf von Rheinfelden and Hermann von Salm with all their might. In Westphalia, however, the Counts of Werl and most of the other nobles such as the Cappenbergs were loyal to the king for a long time. Since his opponents from the eastern parts of the duchy called themselves emphatically 'Saxony', people in the west called themselves more consciously than before as 'Westphalia'. In the course of this contrast, the landscape name 'Engern' seems to have gradually lost its meaning, so that the Weser was ultimately regarded as the eastern border of Westphalia.
      
Map on the history of the Counts of Werl in the 11th century.
The year 1106 brought a new personal constellation for both the Empire and the Duchy of Saxony. Heinrich IV died, and his son Heinrich V succeeded him. Magnus, the last Duke of Billunger, also passed away, and the new king appointed a rather insignificant East Saxon noble named Lothar von Süpplingenburg as his successor. Through various inheritances, his power grew considerably, and so from 1112 he was able to dare to stand up to the ruler in another armed conflict. The king was able to prevail temporarily, but in 1115 Lothar am Welfesholz in East Saxony achieved a decisive victory.

A year later he appeared in Westphalia and besieged the city of Münster, whose citizens finally joined him. He had thus fully asserted himself against the emperor both in eastern Saxony and in Westphalia. Worried about this, Count Friedrich von Werl changed fronts and went over to Heinrich V. In the military clashes that followed, he was to be defeated. In 1120 Lothar conquered the so-called Old Castle near Arnsberg. A year later, Münster was taken again by the Duke and his allies and burned to the ground. Lothar's position in his duchy was now almost overwhelming. He set counts and even margraves unhindered. He also pushed massively for the maintenance of the peace, which additionally strengthened his ducal position. In contrast, the royal power lost all influence in northern Germany. Only Lothar's election as king in 1125 interrupted both developments. But they continued when the Hohenstaufen came to the throne after his death in 1138, while the Duchy of Saxony had already fallen to Lothar's son-in-law Heinrich the Proud from the Guelph family in 1137.
Because of his close relatives to Lothar, Heinrich had high hopes for the royal dignity. After the surprise election of Konrad III. fierce fighting broke out between him and the new king. As heir to Lothar, Heinrich had a secure bastion in Saxony, even if Konrad III. The duchy withdrew from him in 1138 and gave it to Albrecht the Bear. In the end, however, the Guelphs, who had inherited most of the Billungian positions of power as early as 1106, were able to prevail. Heinrich's son of the same name was enfeoffed by the king with the duchy in 1142. Henry the Lion was not only a duke, but also ruler of the most important territories in eastern Saxony and Engern. His power also radiated to Westphalia. In this way he was able to expand his ducal position, on the one hand by taking a leading role in maintaining the peace in the whole of Saxony and, on the other hand, by repeatedly gathering numerous nobles on ducal parliaments. In addition, he consistently strengthened his territorial power in eastern Saxony, also taking advantage of his ducal position. He also tried to bring the dioceses of Bremen, Halberstadt, Minden and Verden under his influence.

Many Saxon princes felt threatened by Heinrich's policies and eventually came together to form a powerful opposition. Almost all Westphalian nobles were among them. Heinrich's most dangerous opponent was the Archbishop of Cologne, who had expanded his positions in southern Westphalia more and more, so that one can speak of a separate regional duchy. Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa supported the duke for a long time, but at the end of the 12th century he too moved away from the Guelph. In 1178 and 1179 armed clashes broke out in Westphalia, but the decisive factor was that in 1180 the Kaiser made clear against Heinrich Front.

At the court in Gelnhausen he withdrew his fiefs, especially the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria. Then the emperor mobilized an imperial army against the Guelph. In 1181 Heinrich was defeated militarily and had to go into exile in England. A year earlier in Gelnhausen, the emperor had divided the Duchy of Saxony and reissued it. As the new Duke of Saxony, Bernhard von Anhalt received the areas east of the Weser, while Archbishop Philipp of Cologne received the Westphalian parts of his diocese and the entire diocese of Paderborn, from which the Cologne Duchy of Westphalia developed.
 

7. Literature

7.1 General history

Beumann, Helmut
The Ottonians. 5th edition Stuttgart [u. a.] 2000.

Boshof, Egon
The Salians. 4th, act. Edition Stuttgart [u. a.] 2000.

Fried, Johannes
The way in history. The origins of Germany up to 1024. Propylaea History of Germany, Vol. 1. Berlin 1998.

Hoops, Johannes
Real Lexicon of Germanic Archeology. 2., completely reworked. and greatly expanded edition, ed. by Heinrich Beck / Dieter Geuenich / Heiko Steuer, 24 vols. Berlin [u. a.] 1973ff.

Keller, Hagen
Between regional limits and a universal horizon. Germany in the empire of the Salians and Staufers 1024 to 1250. Propylaea history of Germany, vol. 2. Berlin 1986.

Schieffer, Rudolf
The Carolingians. 3rd, revised. and exp. Edition Stuttgart [u. a.] 2000.

Schneidmüller, Bernd
The Guelphs. Reign and memory (819-1252). Stuttgart [u. a.] 2000.

7.2 Westphalian history

Balzer, Manfred
Results and problems of the Palatinate research in Westphalia, in: Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte 120, 1984, pp. 105-134.
Outlines the material prerequisites for the work of the kingdom in Westphalia.

Goetz, Hans-Werner
"Saxony" as perceived by Franconian and Ottonian historians, in: Hubertus Seibert / Gertrud Thoma (eds.), From Saxony to Jerusalem. People and institutions through the ages. Festschrift for Wolfgang Giese on the occasion of his 65th birthday, Munich 2004, pp. 73-94.
Against the background of the source terminology, analyzes not only the change from armed conflicts to the peaceful integration of the Saxons into the empire, but also the growing importance of the territorial component in the language of historiographers.

Green, Dennis H. / Siegmund, Frank (eds.)
The Continental Saxons. From the migration period to the tenth century: an ethnographic perspective. Studies in historical archaeoethnology, Vol. 6. Woodbridge [u. a.] 2003.
The strongly interdisciplinary volume combines fundamental studies on the Saxons of the Merovingian and Carolingian times and, together with the following anthology, represents the current state of research.

Häßler, Hans-Jürgen (ed.)
Saxony and Franconia in Westphalia. On the complexity of the ethnic interpretation and delimitation of two early medieval tribes. Studies on Saxony Research, Vol. 12. Oldenburg 1999.

Jakobi, Franz-Josef Jakobi
The Liudolfinger / Ottonen and Westphalia, in: Wilfried Ehbrecht et al. (Ed.), The Historian's Wide View. Insights into cultural, regional and city history. Peter Johanek on his 65th birthday. Cologne [u. a.] 2002, pp. 283-299.
Emphasizes the importance of Westphalia in the 9th and 10th centuries for the Ottonians and their ancestors, which was underestimated in studies of the Saxon duchy.

Kahl, Hans-Dietrich
Charlemagne and the Saxons. Stages and motives of a historical "escalation", in: Herbert Ludat / Christoph Schwinges (eds.), Politics, Society, Historiography. Giessen celebration for František Graus on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Supplements to the Archive for Cultural History, Vol. 18. Cologne [u. a.] 1982, pp. 49-130.
Analyzes the gradual escalation of violence in the Frankish-Saxon dispute and argues that Charlemagne had already made the decision in 775 to subdue the Saxons and to Christianize them with all their might.

Kohl, Wilhelm (ed.)
Westphalian history, vol. 1: From the beginnings to the end of the old empire. Publications of the Historical Commission for Westphalia in the Provincial Institute for Westphalian State and Folk Research of the Regional Association of Westphalia-Lippe, Bd. 43. Düsseldorf 1983.
The standard work on Westphalian history, even if research has ignored some results on questions of the ethnogenesis of the Saxons. The fundamental contributions for the earlier Middle Ages by Wilhelm Winkelmann, Manfred Balzer, Eckhard Freise and Joseph Prinz should be emphasized.

Kruger, Karl-Heinrich
The older Saxons than Franks. On the visit of the emperor Arnulf 889 in the monastery Corvey, in: Westfälische Zeitschrift 151/152, 2001/02, pp. 225-244.
A successful overview of the integration of Saxony and Westphalia into the Franconian Empire.

Lammers, Walther (ed.)
Origin and constitution of the Saxon tribe. Ways of Research, Vol. 50. Darmstadt 1967.
The collection of essays contains the most important contributions from older research, which today, however, are only of historical interest due to their time-bound nature.

Lammers, Walther (ed.)
The incorporation of the Saxons into the Frankish Empire. Ways of Research, Vol. 185. Darmstadt 1970.
Also a compilation of important contributions from older research, especially noteworthy is the contribution by Reinhard Wenskus on the ethnogenesis of the Saxons, specially written for the volume.

Patze, Hans (ed.)
History of Lower Saxony, Vol. 1: Basics and the early Middle Ages. Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen, vol. 36. Hildesheim 1977.

Röckelein, Hedwig
Relic translations to Saxony in the 9th century. About communication, mobility and the public in the early Middle Ages. Supplement of the Francia, vol. 48. Stuttgart 2002.
Illuminated, among other things. the importance of the relic translations for the Christianization of Saxony and its integration into the Franconian Empire.

Schieffer, Rudolf
The beginnings of the Westphalian cathedral pins, in: Westfälische Zeitschrift 138, 1988, pp. 175-191.
Comparative analysis of the founding of the Westphalian cathedral monasteries or dioceses.

Schubert, Ernst (ed.)
History of Lower Saxony, founded by Hans Patze, Vol. 2/1: Politics, Constitution, Economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen, Vol. 36. Hanover 1997.

Stiegemann, Christoph / Wemhoff, Matthias (eds.)
799 - Art and Culture of the Carolingian Era. Charles the Great and Pope Leo III. in Paderborn. Catalog of the exhibition Paderborn 1999. 3 vols. Mainz 1999.
Exhibition catalog designed as a manual with an essay volume with important contributions to the history of Westphalia on the one hand and the Franconian Empire on the other.

Weinfurter, Stefan
Archbishop Philipp of Cologne and the fall of Heinrich the Lion, in: Hanna Vollrath / Stefan Weinfurter (eds.), Cologne. City and diocese in church and empire of the Middle Ages. Festschrift for Odilo Engels on his 65th birthday. Kölner Historische Abhandlungen, Vol. 39. Cologne 1993, pp. 455-481.
Emphasizes the paramount role of the Archbishop of Cologne in southern Westphalia and works out the conflicts between him and Heinrichs the Lion that ultimately led to the duke's overthrow.

Zunker, Diana
Nobility in Westphalia. Structures and concepts of domination (1106-1235). Historical studies, vol. 472. Husum 2003.
Basic study of the Westphalian noble families in the high Middle Ages.
Main text status: 2004.


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