Why have no passengers in commercial aircraft issued parachutes?
Why planes don't have parachutes. Why are there no parachutes in a passenger aircraft? What is the risk of the plane crashing
Imagine climbing aboard a huge modern ocean liner and finding that there are no life jackets. Reasonably ask the friendly captain who meets the passengers on the gangway about the reasons for the absence - what do you hear what A: A modern ocean liner is a super-super-reliable unit and sinks extremely rarely. B. The depth of the side of our liner is 30 meters. Choose to jump away - you will crash into the water or if you lose consciousness from the blow - you will suffocate. Question: If there's such a goddamn storm drowning a liner like ours, you just get hit in the side with all your vests and even boats. Even if you are safely in the water - the temperature is around zero and your horseradish will live longer than 10 minutes. Well, and many more points. Appropriate? Why not! But just at the same time no one will refuse to exhibit west on a reliable ocean liner. For: The liner can sink into calm and warm water and other conditions when a life jacket is essential. Likewise, in the event of a plane crash, there are conditions under which a parachute can definitely save the lives of most passengers. This is, for example, a fire on the train. There is no time for an emergency landing - nor a suitable surface underneath. The crew lowers the airliner from 10 to 7 km within a few minutes and reduces the speed to the lowest possible level (in the range of 300 km / h). Passengers of the rear section exit the cabin via the stern ramp (no special puff of air - this is how whole regiments are dropped during the exercises. Through a special hatch in the floor with an inclined slide and an outer lining (the smallest changes in the aircraft design) option number two - the destruction of the liner in the air (terrorist attack, collision with another liner, changes in design fatigue) As a rule, a bomb explosion on board only kills those in the immediate vicinity - either nobody at all - or happens in the hold), the aircraft is fast destroyed, but not immediately. It unfolds in the air - both speed and altitude fall. Most of the passengers are simply in the air and do not need to leave the plane (explosion over Sinai, Lockbury, cases of planes being accidentally shot down by missiles). Even collisions in the air - contrary to the opinion that "everything is soft here" - actually rarely occur head-on. As a rule, one airplane cuts the fuselage of another with its keel. The cut accidentally flies to the ground in whole pieces, and the one without the keel and hydraulics fights for life for a dozen minutes (a catastrophe over Lake Constance). In all of these cases, the passengers fly alive until they hit the ground. The horrors of instant decompression - death from pressure drops - suffocation - freezing at altitude - can on the one hand be counted - and the main causes of passenger death in such cases are a severe blow to the ground. This is exactly what the parachute should save from. A modern rescue parachute weighs one and a half kilograms - it takes up half the volume of the smallest school bag and does not make it difficult for any airline with "excess weight and volume". Converting an aircraft for an accelerated exit through the ramp and floor hatches doesn't cost a lot of money, unlike semi-fantastic projectors where the entire cabin or equipment is shot down with special turbines. ... At least - most of the passengers are aerophobes and the company that will have such planes and parachutes on board - becomes practically a monopoly - even if ticket prices are 20-30% higher than those of its competitors. The lack of parachutes on passenger ships is an elementary safety saving.
It seems like a completely logical and simple solution that probably came to mind every person who has flown at least once. What are the reasons why there are no parachutes for passengers on airplanes? Is it just avidity?
Most of the “sofa experts” come up with the financing. They say that installing optional equipment is simply unprofitable for airlines, which will lead to higher prices for flights and loss of customers. In addition, companies are even interested in the death of all passengers in the event of a disaster, as this reduces the level of insurance benefits.
Parachutes aren't cheap, of course, and equipping each passenger seat costs a pretty penny. However, will this make people more comfortable? The first is the extra weight. Are there many people who want to replace their hand luggage with a parachute? What if some of the passengers agree and the rest are against? Solve the problem by secret ballot?
Second, putting on a parachute is not like putting a backpack on your back. The briefing alone takes a few hours. Would you like to hear it before every flight? Several shoulder straps must be exactly dimensioned. This means that giving every passenger a standard parachute is not an option. It is necessary to consider separately the options for children, pregnant women, disabled people ... Ideally, you need to put on a parachute, set it up, and fly without removing it before you begin your flight. Can you imagine this picture?
Third, a logical question arises: should parachutes be given to the crews of passenger aircraft? If not, it seems unfair to take away their chance at salvation. And if so, who guarantees that the pilots will not jump out at the most critical moment and leave the falling ship?
Just imagine what a gift that would be for terrorists. You can no longer look for suicide bombers ready to carry the bomb on board and detonate with everyone. After all, you can always jump out.
For example, for their own safety, passengers undertake to endure such inconvenience and to expose themselves to another risk. But here the next question arises:
Will save a parachute on an airplane
As we wrote in the article, most plane crashes happen during takeoff and landing. Everything happens too low to jump and in such a short time that you don't have time not to get dressed, but even to think of a parachute.
Oh yes, we agreed that we would fly with the parachutes already on. In addition, not all accidents occur in close proximity to the ground. Okay, let's imagine a situation where critical issues arose, and that's 10,000 meters. The passengers then have a few minutes to evacuate. To understand how much that is, just watch the video below.
In total, it took almost a minute and a half for the people who were calm and ready for the experiment, knowing they were in no danger, to exit the passenger plane through the emergency exits. And how many will it take for the same number of people to jump in panic from a height of 10 kilometers with a parachute that they see for the first time in their lives?
Skydivers know that it is often difficult to convince even a person who made a conscious decision to jump and paid money to jump out for the first time. Not everyone will decide. In addition, the daredevils face a moral dilemma as the children and old people remaining in the cabin will inevitably die as a result of the pressure drop in the cabin.
Say, so what, do you better save at least some of the passengers than save anyone? Well then, let's see what fate awaits those who dare to jump. Driving speed - approx. 1000 km / h, overboard 50 degrees frost and lack of oxygen. Even if by some miracle you don't smeared on the wing, sucked into the engine, choked or freeze, it's not a fact that you will be delighted with what to expect after landing. The likelihood of being in the middle of the sea is much higher than being on the hospital's doorstep, which would be useful for you after such an adventure ...
Then maybe all passengers should put on not only a parachute but also a wetsuit, an oxygen bottle and a dry ration for 3 days and a survival kit immediately after landing? Or is it too much? Or here's another idea - a catapult. In the event of danger, the pilot presses a button and hundreds of smiling people climb into the sky in comfortable chairs with parachutes over their heads and glasses of champagne in their hands ...
Why there is no catapult in passenger aircraft
Yes, for the same reason why the aircraft's passengers are not given parachutes: unsuitable conditions for survival overboard, as well as the heaviness and high cost of the structure.
Can you imagine hundreds of catapults being fired and parachutes deployed at the same time? They will all be messed up and a large pancake will fall to the floor. Even if you do not make a separate hatch for each passenger, but build something like a common roof, this can significantly reduce the strength of the hull.
So all of these "remedies" are nothing more than fantasies that cannot be realized. At least for now. That is why there are no parachutes or catapults in airplanes. If you look at the statistics, you will understand that such measures are not proportionate to the potential danger. The roof can collapse at any time, but you don't always wear a helmet. So fly calmly and ... enjoy your flight.
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I disagree with the flight director.
Technically, you can save yourself with a parachute. And you don't even have to be able to do anything for that. And even from a height of 10 thousand meters. Assuming the parachute is on a person, it is in the air and the ring is still being pulled.
But how will the passengers land with parachutes and in the air?
Who will provide and control it. And all in the face of stress, crush and fear. Even if the passengers are in a calm state after the flight is over, they cannot get off the plane normally - they rush to the exit and cause an overload.
The idea of having parachutes on board a passenger aircraft contains many unsolvable technical and organizational problems. It is also extremely unprofitable economically. But even if solved hypothetically, the benefits are still doubtful, for example when flying over water.
And in what "accident" do you have to get off the plane at 10,000 meters? It is not very clear what the situation is like. How to define it. And such an escape would be unsafe. Those. There are chances of survival and there are chances of dying too. It will be necessary to be wise with breathing. Leave the vehicle at this speed.
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The Il-76 military transport drops 126 paratroopers with forced use of parachutes in two minutes. This can be done from both side aisles and a rear ramp. Therefore, it is not difficult to organize the system of forced release of passengers in a civil aircraft on the orders of the PIC: stern ramp; Compulsory railing of seats; Parachute system of each seat. As a result, the entire salon was reset in a couple of three minutes.
1. The aircraft loses more than a ton for the organization of this rescue system, which leads to a significant increase in transportation costs (decrease in payload).
2. Passengers do not want to wear seat belts at the time of the flight. And at the time of the emergency evacuation, they are simply thrown out of the chair, rendering the chair's rescue system unusable.
3. The cruising speed of the Airbus A320 is approx. 840 km / h. Landing is allowed at speeds not exceeding 400 km / h and at altitudes not exceeding 4000 m. Otherwise the landing party will be injured by overloads and a strong change in pressure.
4. And the main thing: most disasters occur at low and extremely low altitudes. For take-offs, landings, in mountainous conditions and in times of poor visibility. That is, where the response time is minimal. At this moment only the ejection seat can save.
And that is not the case in all cases.
Accidents occur at low altitudes, which completely destroys the arguments of the majority here that there is nothing to breathe at 10 km. The pilot can reduce speed at the required time and throw passengers out at the required height.
- Passengers are not secured even when approaching the ground? (We consider low flight situations)
those. It is technically possible to exclude all passengers in a short period of time, but the market economy and capitalism will not allow the risk of death to be reduced to relatively zero.
Don't forget that the plane is crashing. Can be downright unmanageable. Both motors or the power supply system can be deactivated and the same dampers have an electric drive. The pilot will not be able to reduce the speed to 300-400 km / h at the right time. Hold them, the vector, and the altitude for several minutes.
The talk that all market strategies for human lives can be sent to Hell is perfectly legitimate. If, from a technical point of view, there weren't all possible impossibilities - low altitudes, unguided airplanes, etc.
The bottom line is that a passenger rescue system can be made even if it doesn't offer a 100% guarantee, but it does increase the chances of survival. And not because of technical impossibility, but because airline owners put their profits above the value of the passengers' lives.
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A civil aircraft's life support system itself does not imply the ability to keep it in the air. What will you get out of? It is impossible to throw the doors in the air: due to the pressure difference, they are closed, so there is no force to open them (after landing, this is done with special devices that first depressurise the aircraft). However, let's assume that the falling plane has a pressure drop in the air (which is pretty similar to the truth in the case of the flight that has now crashed in France). Let's also assume that a hole formed there through which people could jump out of the liner. But what would they breathe at 10,000 meters? To jump with a parachute without an oxygen mask, the altitude must not be more than 4 kilometers. The Düsseldorf-Barcelona plane crashed at a height of about 2000 meters. Would 150 passengers have time to jump while the plane fell 2 kilometers? No, they don't have time. Not to mention the fact that you need to know how to use a parachute, and it's impossible to teach this in a brief pre-flight briefing given by a flight attendant. Paratroopers prepare for independent jumps for six months.
When safety matters a lot, the engines have to be made more powerful and more economical. If it is not possible to open the door during take-off, you will need to open a roof to eject and wear masks. Someone didn't want to buckle up - just leave this one and die. And conduct courses for a skydiver beforehand. But you have to make a real SAFE PLANE! What is the security now? That security bullshit that tells you where to get out in the event of a fire and it is impossible to open the door at a great height? I will not go to guaranteed death!
You can provide an escape hatch in the aircraft.
- It is possible to have a pressure equalization system in the aircraft.
- Oxygen masks can be provided for each passenger.
- It is possible to have the parachute deploy automatically.
- You can have seats ejected automatically.
After a short briefing, I jumped with a parachute for the first time, I didn't prepare for half a year. I didn't even prepare for a day.
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Because they will be useless.You are unlikely to jump out of the height the planes are flying - at 10 km there is no oxygen or pressure and the temperature is extremely low - you either pass out and don't open the parachute (on a long fall) jump with Opening on the last kilometer) or you will not immediately reach a "comfortable" altitude - nothing to breathe and -45 degrees will do its job.
Jumping out at the speed at which planes fly and jumping out is unlikely to survive - the oncoming airflow will be very strong and will tear apart the fuselage and tail unit, as well as the parachute and person. As far as I know (if I'm wrong they will correct it) the plane's speed is usually limited to three hundred km / h during clearance.
By decreasing the altitude we increase the speed (think of the school on how to convert potential energy to kinetic) and if the plane is out of order there aren't many chances of clearing that speed. If the plane is already falling, the speed will definitely not be reduced.
In addition, the positive opening system places even stricter requirements on the maximum speed. And without them and without training, and even from such an altitude where there is no pressure or oxygen, passengers most likely pass out after the jump and will never be revealed. This will also not help in the case of accidents during take-off or landing, which are the most common. Even in bad weather. In 99% of cases, parachutes are generally unusable, but they take up space and weight, and it is also necessary to change the design of the doors, equalize the pressure before opening, and install a forced opening system.
And if you also display a seriously sealed spacesuit with an oxygen cylinder, you still have to put it on. And it will weigh a lot, which will exorbitantly increase the cost of flights. And don't forget with him that you don't jump more than 800 km / h.
If the aircraft is at a height sufficient for a parachute jump, all is not lost and a more or less safe landing is very likely. Therefore, it is safer for passengers to stay in the cabin.
If the aircraft is already in a situation where it is impossible to rescue and a crash is inevitable, then you will not be able to jump at an uncontrollable speed and altitude.
After all, skydiving requires the right conditions and the right people. Even if the passengers (including the elderly, children, invalids, pregnant women) figure out how to fly with a parachute in the air, the landing is very traumatic. especially if you have to fall into the sea, on a mountainside or a dense forest.
therefore it is safer not to parachute in all respects
This question is very well answered by a fragment of an article by Lurk on plane crashes. Mat is present as always.
15-20 square meters of rags with ropes for the hands can slow the speed of fall from "crumbling into flesh" to "lying on my back plastered", but don't rush to put Parashit in your hand luggage and arrange it like your favorite leaf - the one The only real chance of landing is in the destruction in the air, which is exotic in itself, and besides, a fresh headwind will likely either smear you on the structure before moving away from it or just remember that you are Forget your rag due to unconsciousness or twisting slings. You won't be able to jump off the side, even the most urgent and clearly doomed, simply because of a number of objective reasons and the barometric relays that the doors are equipped with. Until the pressure inside and outside is the same, open the tail.
Your question is answered on Wikipedia so I hope you won't be offended if I copy it from there:
"In passenger aviation, parachute systems are not used to save the lives of passengers because they are completely useless for this purpose. The simultaneous exiting of an aircraft by hundreds of parachutists is not even for trained parachutists jumping from a normally controlled landing plane trivial task Exiting an aircraft at a speed of 360-400 km / h is a jump of increased complexity high speeds carried out only during ejection, with special mechanisms to protect the pilot from injuries that can be caused by the incoming air flow Exiting an emergency aircraft that is intentionally flying at high speed by dozens of people, most of whom are physically or mentally unwilling to take a jump, including the elderly and children, requires at least a lot of time and special landing equipment security is available and the aircraft is controllable, in most cases it can make an emergency landing before planing, which is the safest escape route. If there is no headroom, there is no time to get off the plane. If, for example, the aircraft makes uncontrollable developments, it goes into a tailspin, then even a trained person can often not leave it.
Such systems were developed and successfully used for the rescue of small aircraft (a parachute of 100 m² and a weight of 13 kg, which is deployed by detonators; about 200 pilots were rescued). "
It's not even about having time to send around 140 people through the back door of the Airbus every three seconds (20 people per minute, a total of 7 minutes) and to equip all aircraft with the possibility of forced opening of the parachute (because not every person in shock will be able to determine the correct time and, after assessing their position in the air, to open the parachute). Even without considering altitude, temperature overboard and other factors, how are all these people trapped in the air going to end up? They don't know how to escape an obstacle, be it a forest, a mountain or a building. They don't know how to fly a parachute. They don't know how to hold their legs so they don't break their hips when they hit the floor. You won't even be able to clear the dome. And even in a clean, flat field with no breeze. And with the wind and in difficult terrain ... it's easier to use a large emergency parachute on an airplane than you tried once.
Even so, it is better to have a hip fracture than to die. If companies wanted to save that tiny percentage when people's lives were above profits, it would be all over. But it is expensive. This is for the relatives of the victims, such an accident is a tragedy, for the company a planned loss. Besides, it is routine or a reason to talk about why there is no point in saving the lives of those who die in accidents.
Once upon a time, in one of the western trade magazines, there was a rather elaborate project for rescuing passengers for medium and large aircraft (the project was being considered by a European aircraft manufacturer). In the fuselage of the aircraft, compartment-salons were supposed to be combined into a composition similar to the wagons. Any compartment saloon that was fitted with a parachute system in the event of an accident had to be automatically sealed and thrown along the rail guides through the aircraft's rear ramp. Landing with a sink rate in the range of 20-25 km / h was mitigated by inflatable shock-absorbing floats.
Military aircraft have been parachuting heavy tanks for 60 years. And with modern materials, any airline can carry out such a project.
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It is hard to imagine how parachute passengers can be safely evacuated. Assume that the cabin is depressurized at a great height. Oxygen masks hang in front of the passengers. Is there a dangerous choice - put on a mask and buckle up, or pull the parachute out from under the chair and run to the door? Another situation is that something happened on a freelance basis and the commanding officer asks for silence over the speakerphone. There will also be people trying to parachute to escape contrary to the team's instructions, which will most likely lead to panic and damage to the aircraft. Even in an ideal situation, if the plane does not fall and the altitude is low enough, it will be difficult to exit - the crowd in the door will negate the benefits of parachutes. In addition, the design of passenger planes is simply not suitable for skydiving, and it is hardly possible to let them safely through the side doors.
The reason is simple: to "jump" from a passenger aircraft at an altitude of 10,000 m, a temperature of -50 degrees Celsius and a speed of 850 km / h and at the same time extremely difficult to survive. To do this, the parachute must be accompanied by 1) a single oxygen device 2) a protective suit 3) an emergency release (catapult).
Otherwise, the combination of physical shock, temperature, and most importantly, low oxygen partial pressure overboard will kill you almost instantly.
All of this equipment, made available to each passenger, adds so much to the weight of the aircraft and the complexity of its design that the aircraft becomes unusable for its intended purpose (it simply cannot take off).
However, this is quite possible for 1-2 people, which is the case, for example, in military aviation.
Parachutes in modern passenger planes are not issued, as they cannot, by themselves, be a life-saving device in a dilute atmosphere at an altitude of 10,000 m, a speed of 850 km / h and a temperature of about minus 50 degrees Celsius. And they weigh decently and take up a lot of space.
Most accidents happen during take-off or landing when the parachute is unusable. And with the great speed at which modern liners fly, it is not that easy to jump out, as it instantly pushes the current to the hull. The likelihood of the plane falling is very small and the ability to use life-saving appliances is very limited - no one will carry an extra ton of unnecessary cargo over millions of flights.
First, even in the event of an accident, the parachute is unlikely to save many passengers. The vast majority of them take place either during takeoff and ascent or during landing. In either case, parachutes are simply useless because they simply don't have time to open in time, even if a person jumps out with them. In situations like this, it is much safer to stay inside and wait for the moment of impact in your seat, which is strapped and in the recommended safe position. Accidents at a height safe for jumping are vanishingly rare, but even in this case, in addition to the parachute itself, a successful rescue requires fairly robust jump training (liners fly much higher than ordinary parachute jumps, which are allowed for beginners after half an hour of instruction and training on the ground), which 99.9% of passengers simply don't have.
Second, carrying parachutes, which with a probability of 99.99999% (see point 1) simply does not make sense even in the event of an accident (which in itself is a rare phenomenon), is superfluous (and very significant) given the weight of a parachute backpack and multiply by a few hundred passengers an average liner freight, the transport of which costs fuel and therefore money. As a result, it would be necessary (as I said earlier) to increase the cost of tickets, which is an extremely unfortunate and risky move in the conditions of tight competition in the market.
They are not needed there. In an emergency, when the plane wobbles, it is impossible to evacuate, and how will you jump if the plane crashes at great speed. In addition, there is practically no oxygen at high altitudes. You end up dead from suffocation. If you don't run into something when opening the hatch, the cabin will depressurise and 99% of people have never parachuted before. There are many reasons.
Because it's completely pointless.
If we analyze plane crashes, it turns out that there were no situations where passengers could theoretically use parachutes. Most accidents occur during take-off, approach, landing and when aircraft are walking along the runway. In flight, only 6% of disasters are recorded in flight. As a rule, they are accompanied by emergency relief, in which passengers either die from a drop in pressure or lose consciousness due to hypoxia.
But even if we imagine that there is a technical malfunction and the crew understands that the plane is going to crash, but there is time to evacuate - to use a parachute you must be in good physical condition, undergo training (Beginners and "coupons" jump after the briefing with an instructor) Given the panic and confusion, few will actually be able to use them. In addition, a passenger aircraft is simply not suitable for landing (which, in relative terms, is still not possible at all altitudes, it is relatively safe from 3000 to 1000 m). The installation of a landing ramp "eats up" up to a third of the useful cabin volume, parachutes occupy a significant place, and the probability of necessity and possibility is a fraction of a percent. At the same time, the ticket price only doubles due to a reduction in space in the cabin + system development, R&D, implementation, crew training, etc.
I would like to take this opportunity to remind you that plane crashes are extremely rare. The chance that a passenger who gets on an airplane will die in a plane crash is approximately 1 / 8,000,000. If a passenger takes a random flight every day, it takes an average of 21,000 years to die.
Please write the word "parachute" in the site's search bar (in the top right corner with a magnifying glass) (this is how that word is spelled, read the answers already written on this topic and try to use the Search Before You write a question.
A parachute will not save you as mentioned above, but a capsule that falls smoothly on parachutes is very uniform ... We have long learned to fall from cargo planes: trucks, armored personnel carriers, tanks, etc., the T-90 Tank weighs 46 tons, and the Boeing 737 - 66 tons (empty), throw out the engines, fuel, luggage and other nonsense, add the mass of passengers (150 people * 70 kg \ u003d 10.5 tons) and you will understand that everything is very real!
But business people do not value human life, so it is cheaper for them to make insurance payments than to make expensive conversions, suffer losses, which in turn increases ticket prices many times, and therefore leads to the loss of customers
The plane crash does not occur at cruising speed and with the normal ceiling. Most likely, between the cause of the accident and the crew and passengers understanding that an accident has occurred, the aircraft will lose speed and altitude. A protective suit and an oxygen tank are definitely not needed. The main problem is how to get out of the salon. If the pilots have time to stabilize the aircraft before the fall and to take at least 3-4 km of altitude and fly in this mode for about 20 minutes, it is possible to parachute the majority of the passengers, provided the parachutes are used are equipped with automatic opening and an altimeter. Because many passengers will simply be in a semi-weak state and a state of passion. The chances of escape, which are subject to calm and restraint, are high (when the aircraft is stabilized and there is time for an evacuation). If an accident broke the plane apart in midair or the fall is uncontrolled, the plane turns and panic reigns on board - the chances are zero. For example, a Malaysian plane that hit a rock a few years ago could have evacuated most people if there had been parachutes. Regarding the take-off weight of the aircraft, each model has a specific weight and its importance is no secret. The weight of the load the board picks up on the flight depends on the distance and the weight of the fuel for that distance, which together do not exceed the take-off weight of the vehicle.Every aircraft also has a margin for takeoff weight and takeoff strength. Predicting the weight of 300 parachutes is not a problem. The problem is that the plane uses less cargo or fuel on the flight. Skydiving also requires skill and knowledge of the technique. Including safety in the air. Most likely, a certain percentage of the passengers will not be able to use the parachute after the jump. However, a certain percentage will only survive thanks to the parachute. If at least one life can be saved in a plane crash, it is already worth taking parachutes on board.
First of all, it is not in itself easy to parachute out of an airplane. Even ideally, a small, low-speed aircraft specifically designed for parachutist dropping will be used with the simplest forced-opening parachute such as a parachute. B. D5, instructed and trained in advance for beginners. And for planes everything becomes much more complicated, for jumping out in principle not adapted.
Where will the three hundred unprepared passengers have to jump out? And how long does it take?
Second, even if we have theoretically solved the first problem, each parachute has 15-20 kilograms of extra weight for each passenger, regardless of whether it is used or not. This means higher ticket prices as the plane will "parachute" less baggage and fewer passengers.
Third, the main accidents in passenger aircraft occur during take-off and landing when there is simply no time for a "parachute". Hopefully I don't have to consider converting passenger seats to ejector seats?
How do you imagine that? The liner is losing altitude, time goes by for seconds and instead of trying to save the board the crew will depressurise the hull and try to parachute the passenger there? In addition, a drop in pressure at least causes people to lose consciousness or in general give their souls to God. There is a project that involves rescuing passengers by parachute in the event of a plane crash. Incidentally, the Ukrainian made it up. I think the idea has potential.
P / S. For a second I imagined the liner falling at gigantic speed at an unknown angle and flying over something incomprehensible, and the flight attendants attracted a crazy person, talked to god and overboard. And then, bam, and suddenly the stalled engine starts to work temporarily, the liner balances out and gains height. And the board leaders looked at each other and said: "Oops, a bug came out ..."
\ u003e \ u003e Why didn't you come up with parachutes for planes or seats?
How do you not come up? Everything has already been invented!
Here's a movie about an airplane parachute (Cirrus):
Here is a movie about parachutes for chairs:
Parachute for the large passenger plane It turns out to be unrealistically large, and aircraft fall under normal training, and certification of pilots is extremely rare (in the United States, for example, not a single US passenger plane has fallen since February 2009, and one passenger died of a shovel when an engine was destroyed in 2018). The ejection seat is inherently dangerous - many pilots are "written off" after being ejected because of a spinal injury. And these are trained military men chosen for health reasons, not random passengers.
Because even professional paratroopers cannot safely leave the slow-flying aircraft with which they are familiar, which is designed to jump and which is partially killed, in an emergency situation.
Ordinary passengers flying a non-jump plane cannot parachute or even safely open doors during the flight.
If you click the magnifying glass icon in the top right corner and type the word parachute, you will find many answers to a similar question you asked earlier. All possible answers are already listed there, use it.
This significantly increases the weight of the aircraft with passengers and luggage, which affects the ticket price. Plus, the chances of recovery won't add much because there is no way everyone will be able to get off the board quickly ... and no parachutes are needed for non-urgent cases.
In modern passenger ships, neither the crew nor the passengers have parachutes. The reason is not because of the ability to use them as mentioned above, and not because of the small height (as if you couldn't open them). The reason is the atmospheric pressure and the design of the aircraft.During take-off, aircraft doors / hatches are automatically locked with an air locki.e. insane passenger pulling the door handle cannot get into the cloud. The pressure at a height of 10 km is about 4 tons. And the windows have several permanent layers. In general, Parachutes are useless because once you have taken off you will not leave the aircraft. Just enjoy the flight. The crew is professional and will take care of you in every situation.
First, the volume and weight of the seat will be increased sufficiently and the passenger capacity will be less. Second, it is expensive to put a catapult in every chair and recycle the ceiling mechanisms. Tickets therefore cost a lot more. Third, catapult disasters are so rare that such high security measures are not required. And if, for example, a disaster happens on the water, the passenger does not have the opportunity to put on a life jacket and not everyone can swim. The likelihood of dying will be even higher in this case, I think.
No. The reason is as simple as three rubles - the passenger cannot use it. Skydiving not only requires a parachute but also the skills and experience to use it and you need the ability to use it i.e. H. Acceptable altitude and the ability to exit the cabin. The overwhelming number of accidents occur on take-off / landing, which means that the parachute is unusable in this situation.
Because a parachute jump requires minimal preparation - this time (only to put on that backpack). Because the design of the liner doesn't allow for the option to leave it with one parachute - that's two. In principle, this is enough and there is no point in even trying to parachute passenger planes.
Suppose the plane crashed while flying at its normal cruising altitude. How long could it be before it hits the ground? Minute minimum. Suppose there are 200 passengers on the plane. In a minute they won't have time to leave the parlor and jump out the only (as far as I can understand) door. Also, panic and crush will begin. Well then you will understand everything. Therefore, in this situation, it is safer to strap yourself into a chair and hope for the best. :) :)
Because in order to be able to jump with a parachute, you need to have some knowledge and skills. Without a preparatory preparation and training program, this parachute can only cause damage.
There are certain flight safety requirements and certain rescue strategies depending on how the aircraft meets these requirements.
So far it is believed that the rescue of the aircraft consists in applying all of the crew's forces to the landing. If an aircraft is destroyed, no matter where (take off, landing, in flight), you cannot rescue someone with or without a parachute. And if the plane is not destroyed, it will be more efficient to land. So the crew can save everyone in general. And that is often the case. They put them on roads, on water, without engines, without a chassis.
Why are there no parachutes in passenger planes? A question that worries anyone who has ever been afraid of or while flying. Turbulence and other factors make you think, willy-nilly, "If the plane falls, if we all die ...". The next thought that visits our consciousness and imagination: "If I had a parachute, I would jump out and flee." Why are passenger ships still not equipped with parachutes? In the event of an accident it would be possible to organize and collect them all and "empty" them out of the airlock. Not all that simple, however.
There are international rules according to which a parachute is not displayed on passenger aircraft because it is ineffective and unprofitable. Unprofitable refers to the excess weight that the aircraft must load. A parachute weighs an average of 10 kg. The aircraft can carry 70 to 700 passengers at the same time (depending on the aircraft model) plus crew. It is not difficult to calculate - the additional weight is between 700 kg and 7 tons! Each aircraft has its own load capacity. If it is equipped with parachutes, several passenger seats must be left vacant. This is a huge loss for the airlines.
Inefficiency is understood as the fact that an unprepared person in panic, riot, weightlessness and other obstacles at the moment of a fall is not able to correctly and centrally set up a parachute without panic in order to reach the place of "dropping". In addition, the pilot and staff are not given parachutes, so the crew is not tempted to save their own lives and get off the falling plane with passengers.
Let's imagine we are flying in a passenger plane with parachutes. Suddenly an abnormal situation arises, the pilots cannot cope with it and the plane crashes.
We know how to use a parachute and we were able to put it on, but the plane tosses so much that we just can't get to the exit. In fact, even for professional paratroopers, it would be difficult to get off a falling plane. Not to mention us untrained passengers.
We carry a parachute, the plane keeps falling and we miraculously made it to the safest door at the end of the plane. If you get out of other doors while jumping, you could bump into the wing or get into the engine. So we open the door and another problem awaits us here: air and speed.
As everyone knows, a passenger plane flies at a speed of up to 1000 km / h. At this speed the air becomes like a concrete wall. If you jump off a plane with no physical training, you will simply be broken and twisted. This is especially true for the elderly, women and children.
How for the air? Airplanes fly at an altitude of about 10-12 km. Research has shown that a person needs additional oxygen at an altitude of 4 km. At an altitude of 5 miles, a person without an oxygen bottle simply cannot survive. It is unlikely that you could jump out at such speed and altitude while trapping an oxygen bottle.
You came to the door and opened it - pressure relief! If a person becomes depressurized at an altitude of about 10 km, they will live no more than 30 seconds.
They could still get off the plane, overcome the tremendous pressure, blast of air and the temperature of minus 60 degrees in the absence of oxygen. And here the test again - taiga, winter, bears, wolves, ocean, desert, field, power lines, crazy boars and other problems are below. Surviving in this case will be a great fortune.
Of course there is a chance of survival!The people are arranged in such a way that they will fight to the last for the slightest chance of survival. However, do the airlines agree with our position? Unfortunately not, they believe that the chance of salvation is so negligible that a 30% cut in their income is too high a price to be unwilling to pay for that chance. In addition, the survivors will sue the airline for far more than compensation for the victims' families.
Incidentally, a method has long been invented by which all passengers can be saved in the event of a plane crash. The passenger compartment and cockpit are a capsule that can detach from the rest of the aircraft in the event of a crash and parachute to the ground. You, in turn, are automatically revealed in this situation - and everyone is saved! It looks like this:
This is also not beneficial for airlines, again the survivors will complain. Technically, this option is realistic and there are ways to implement it, but no one wants to re-equip their fleet of aircraft and pay compensation to the survivors. That is the whole point of the problem.
According to the results of a study on air accidents carried out over 20 years, only 5% of all passengers died on board in 570 accidents. That is, out of 53,000 people who survived the crash, 51,000 survived.
Don't forget that 90% of airplane crashes occur during takeoff and landing. At a height of 20 meters you hardly need a parachute.
Perhaps a lot of people had a question about why there are no parachutes for passengers on airplanes. After all, this seems like a very simple and logical solution to rescue people in the event of an accident. Most people think the problem is that airlines just don't want to spend money on this rescue tool because additional equipment is incredibly expensive to install. Not all that simple, however. Even when the parachutes are installed, they add significant weight to the airliner.
Note that the weight of the device is about 20 kg... Do all passengers agree to take much less baggage with them? It is also important to know that an ordinary person simply cannot parachute in a few minutes. Hardly any of the passengers ever put on all of their equipment and jumped. And in the face of the turmoil, it's almost impossible to get it right.
In addition, mandatory instruction lasting several hours is required. Don't forget about the different configuration of people. Disabled, old people and children can be on the plane. Finding parachutes for everyone is almost impossible. In answering the question of whether there are parachutes in passenger planes, it is evident that their presence is inconvenient.
According to statistics, most accidents happen either during takeoff or landing. Everything happens very quickly and at a low altitude. Accordingly, the passenger does not even have time to put on a parachute in an emergency. Obviously one can raise objections. A certain percentage of accidents occur at high altitudes. In this case, however, another problem arises.
The thing is the plane flies at a speed of about 800 km / hand the recommended jumping speed is half as high. Pressure relief should also not be allowed, as this will almost instantly lead to the death of anyone who remains in the cabin. But even if the passenger jumps out, there is a high chance that at such a high speed you will simply be slapped against the wing or sucked into the turbine.
Of course, that's not all. At a great height the air temperature is approx. - 40 ° C.... Without special clothing, a person simply freezes. In addition, there is a risk of landing in the sea. For this reason, these rescue accessories are not intended for use in passenger aircraft.
What is the approximate cost of this tiny chance?
Modern airliner offers space for approx. 200 people. The easiest parachute costs $ 700... It must be noted that such devices will not work for inexperienced people, as parachutes with automatic provision are required and their price is already twice as high. You also need a repository for all of these devices. It also requires regular servicing, maintenance, and replacement of parachutes. Accordingly, the price of an airliner with such a kit is approximately $ 450,000.... If we add the price of equipment etc here, the amount will just be huge.
How and where to place parachutes?
Anyone who has ever flown an airplane knows very well that an ordinary passenger airplane is unlikely to be able to hold everyone and their hand luggage. Remember that any parachute, even the simplest, takes up as much space as a medium-sized bag on wheels. Accordingly, the question arises as to where everything should be stored. If the parachute is placed under each seat, it means there is no legroom or the seats do not fully unfold.If you put extra luggage upstairs, there will be nowhere to put your personal belongings.
How much does the plane weigh with parachutes?
So, even if there is extra space, how much fewer things do you have to take? Let's take a closer look at this problem. The simplest parachute weighs a little more than 15 kgHowever, if we calculate the weight of all devices, then about 3000 are added to the mass of the aircraftd. To allocate that much space, around 30 people have to be eliminated with their luggage.
Of course, there is good news in this case too: there are parachutes for everyone. The chance that anyone can jump out is zero. In addition, ticket costs increase by 30-40%. Even so, companies will practically not get the cost of tickets back, that is, in this case there will be enormous waste, with practically no reimbursement.
Note that water life jackets are much more practical, although emergency landings in the sea or river are incredibly rare. But there is a living example - a unique landing in the Hudson River that occurred in the early 2000s. Surprisingly, none of the passengers died. That is why the option with a pillow looks more reliable and easier. Note that the price is between $ 10 and $ 20. There is also a high possibility that when the airliner lands on the water, it will not fall apart and float.
We have already investigated why parachutes are not provided on airplanes, but many may have an idea with catapults. They are not given to everyone for the same reason, namely:
- sub-zero temperature overboard at high altitude;
- great weight of the structure;
- high costs that affect the price of the tickets.
It is probably hardly possible to implement a company with catapults that fire synchronously with all passengers. It is very likely that they will all be confused with one another. Also, don't forget that you will need to make a separate hatch for each passenger. This, in turn, reduces the strength of the trunk many times, and accordingly, an emergency situation may arise due to this factor.
On this basis the use of a parachute or catapult - nothing more than a fantasy that is almost impossible to realize... Of course everything can change in a couple of decades, but at this stage it is. Studying in detail the statistics of accidents involving aircraft, you can understand that such measures are not appropriate.
What are the chances of a plane crash?
Let's take a look at the chances of getting into an emergency on an airliner. According to the latest data, the chance of dying on an airplane is 1 in 20 million. the chance of dying in a car accident is 1 in 9,200. By the way, the likelihood that the roof of the house will collapse is also higher than the likelihood of dying on the plane. Therefore, the desire to fly in a parachute or insert a catapult into the seat can simply be a manifestation of a phobia when flying. To get rid of it, you can turn to any psychologist.
Note that you shouldn't be afraid of flying. All aircraft are carefully checked prior to flight. Nowadays the fines for emergencies are very high. No company wants to pay crazy money for insurance. Therefore everyone deals responsibly with their business.
Can I take a parachute with me?
Many passengers are interested in the question of whether it is still possible to take a parachute on a flight. The answer is yes. After all, this is the same as the rest. However, many experts believe that the chance to use it is negligible. We therefore recommend not to scare other passengers with such a burden, as many may also be afraid of flying.
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