Did other civilizations have other constellations?
2012: Facts about the film
The story of the 2012 film: In 2009 the American government received a confidential report that confirmed that the earth will be doomed in just a few years - namely at the end of the Mayan calendar on December 21, 2012. While committed scientists are feverishly looking for ways out of the disaster, a secret disaster plan is developed at the top of the list, but it does not provide for the rescue of all people.
The Maya and their calendar
Does the Maya calendar really end on December 21, 2012?
No, the Mayan calendar does not "end". Just as our calendar is made up of different periods (weeks, months, years), there are also different periods in the Maya calendar. In the so-called long count, five different numbers are used to indicate a date. As we speak of December 17th, 2003, for example, the Maya have the date March 12th, 5th, 11th, 2012. On December 21, 2012, a major period of the calendar is now over and a new one begins. In Maya notation, 12/21/2012 is 184.108.40.206.0. The 13 was - next to the 20 - an important number for the Maya and therefore the period becomes 0.0.0.0.0. up to 220.127.116.11.0. referred to as an epoch. On December 21st, 2012 an epoch of the Mayan calendar ends and not the calendar itself. This transition is comparable to that from December 31st, 1999 to January 1st, 2000 in our calendar.
Is it true that other calendars from other cultures end on the same day?
How did the Mayans know much about astronomy?
The Mayan society and religion were heavily dominated by their calendar. Things had to happen on the “right” days. That is why it was important for the Maya to have an exact calendar and that is why they also observed the sky in order to determine their calendar from the movement of the heavenly bodies. As for the calculation of the calendar, the Mayan astronomical knowledge was truly remarkable. As far as the rest of astronomy is concerned, however, the Maya's knowledge was no better than comparable civilizations.
Did something important happen on the day of the zero point of the calendar 5000 years ago? And 5000 years before?
It is no longer known exactly when the Mayan calendar was zero. Today it is assumed that it is August 11, 3114 BC. In Mayan mythology, this is the date on which the world was created. No particular event is known in the real history of the world on this date; not even 5000 years earlier.
Is it true that really bad catastrophes occur on earth cyclically (every 5000 years, every 26,000 years, every 3600 years)?
Yes and no. There are certain indications from paleontology that there is a mass extinction on earth at a time interval of about 26 million years (whether this periodicity is really that exact, or whether it exists at all is still a matter of dispute). This could be caused by increased meteorite activity, which in turn is due to the gravitational effect of a still unknown, very distant companion star of the sun. This star, if it exists, has nothing to do with 2012. If it were close enough to be somehow dangerous to us, then we would notice the star thousands of years before. There is no evidence whatsoever for other periods related to the alleged end of the world in 2012. However, since there are always catastrophes (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and so on) taking place somewhere on earth, it is easy to construct supposed "evidence" for any period through selective data selection.
Constellations and the center of the Milky Way
Is it true that a very rare planetary constellation can be observed in 2012?
No. There is no extraordinary planetary constellation in 2012.
Is it true that the earth's axis points to the center of the Milky Way in December 2012?
No. The axis of the earth is actually not rigid, but rather describes a circle - like the axis of rotation of a top. However, it can never point to the center of the Milky Way. To do this, the earth would have to "tip over" - and that can only happen if it collides with a celestial body of approximately the same size. But there is no such celestial body on a collision orbit with the earth. Other constellations between the earth and the center of the Milky Way also have nothing to do with 2012.
Is there actually already an increased or new occurrence of gamma rays from the center of the Milky Way, which could indicate a “synchronizing ray”?
No. A "synchronization beam" is a term that is unknown in science and that can only be found in the books of esoteric authors. There is nothing extraordinary about the radiation that comes from the center of the Milky Way. Large bursts of gamma radiation existgamma ray bursts) - but do not come from our Milky Way but from extragalactic sources. "Synchronization rays" from the center of the Milky Way have nothing to do with reality.
Magnetic fields and the pole shift
Will there be a pole shift in 2012 and how dangerous is that?
Geophysicists use “pole shift” to describe a reversal of the polarity of the earth's magnetic field: the magnetic north pole becomes the south pole and vice versa. From geological studies we know that such a polarity reversal occurs every 250,000 years. However, this is not a spontaneous process - a polarity reversal can take several thousand years. During a polarity reversal, the earth's magnetic field becomes weaker, which leads to an increased impact of cosmic rays on the earth. That can be dangerous for life beings; but it is not catastrophic - otherwise life would have long since died out during past pole shifts. Other alleged catastrophes ("detachment" of the earth's mantle, tilting of the earth's axis, ...) cannot be triggered by a pole shift.
If the magnetic field changes, is it possible that the earth will then (temporarily) stop rotating?
No. The rotation of the earth cannot stop so easily. To stop a rotating object, energy must be used. In the case of the rotating earth, the energy required for this is so high that there is hardly a process that can get carried away and changes in the magnetic field have a negligibly small influence in this regard.
Will there really be a solar storm in December 2012? What impact does a "sunspot high" have on the earth?
The activity of the sun changes cyclically; every eleven years it is particularly strong. The next activity maximum is expected for May 2013 and it should be lower than previous maximums. Increased solar activity can lead to failures of power lines or satellites, for example - but this does not trigger major natural disasters or the like. In general, the earth's atmosphere protects us from the solar wind.
Is it true that it has been observed that increased solar activity can lead to political and other unrest on earth? (Like the fall of the Berlin Wall)
No. There are no statistically reasonable data for such a connection. Of course, you can always select certain events so that they correspond to a certain period. But that has nothing to do with any real context. Political unrest and the like happen somewhere on earth every year. There is no connection with solar activity.
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