# What is 8 8 4 12

### Simplified notation for adding and subtracting

### Adding and subtracting a __positive__ Number:

$$( +5 ) + ( + 9 )$$ $$ =5 + 9 = 14$$

↙ ↘

instead of $$ (+ 5) $$ instead of $$ (+ 9) $$

$$5$$ $$9$$

$$( +12 ) - ( + 23 )$$ $$ =12 -23 = -11$$

↙ ↘

instead of $$ (+ 12) $$ instead of $$ (+ 23) $$

$$12$$ $$23$$

### Adding and subtracting a __negative__ Number:

$$( - 8 ) - ( - 14 ) $$ $$=( - 8 ) + ( + 14 )$$ ↘

Subtracting $$ (- 14) $$

means adding $$ (+14) $$

$$ =- 8 + 14 = 6$$

↙

instead of $$ (- 8) $$

$$-8$$

$$(- 13 ) - ( + 16 ) = - 13 + ( -16 )$$ ↘

Adding $$ (- 16) $$ means

subtract from $$ (+16) $$

$$=- 13$$ $$ – 16 = - 29$$

↙

instead of $$ (- 13) $$

$$-13$$

Subtracting a number is the same as adding the opposite number

### Bracket rules for addition and subtraction

##### 1st example: sign of the bracket "$$ + $$"

**Step 1:** Release the clamp

$$12 + ( 8$$ $$– 4 ) = 12 + 8$$ $$– 4 $$

**2nd step:** Combine numbers with the same sign

$$12 + 8$$ $$– 4 = 20$$ $$– 4 $$

**3rd step:** Group numbers according to the sign rules

$$20$$ $$– 4 = 16$$

A “$$ + $$” in front of the brackets means that the signs do not change when the brackets are broken!

##### 2nd example: sign of the bracket "$$ - $$"

**Step 1:** Release the clamp

$$28 - ( 6 + 4 ) = 28$$ $$– 6 - 4 $$

**2nd step:** Combine numbers with the same sign

$$28$$ $$– 6$$ $$– 4 = 28 - 10$$

**3rd step:** Group numbers according to the sign rules

$$28$$ $$– 10 = 18$$

A “$$ - $$” in front of the brackets means that the signs change when the brackets are broken!

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