What is basin in geology



A basin in the sense of geology refers to a larger sedimentation space in which the rock layers were or will be deposited as sediments, mostly in the shape of a bowl.

Such basins are mostly subsidence areas that are created by regional or large-scale tectonics, the tensile forces of which weaken or thin the earth's crust. The subsidence generally increases from the edge - where mostly geological faults run - to the center and can amount to a few mm / year. With simultaneous filling with sediments, the altitude remains largely constant.

Different causes of pelvic formation

A sunken geological floe is also known as a basin or burglary basin. Another cause of the basin formation can be a filled depression that was created during a mountain fold. A subsidence can also be triggered by compaction of the subsoil (compaction of deposited rock layers).

In the foreland of mountains, many basins are created by the erosion of glaciers that clear a depression. In this way, the great glaciers of the Ice Age left countless tongue basins in the foothills of the Alps, which were often filled by lakes. Such post-glacial lake basins or other water-filled depressions are filled with sediments over time. In the end, there is often only a bog or marsh area that is no longer recognizable on the surface as a glacial valley or subsidence area for the layperson.

The impact crater of a large meteorite can also be counted among the basin shapes - in Germany in particular the Nördlinger Ries and Steinheimer basins.

Source: GeoDZ

Examples of large geological basins in Europe

  • North Sea Basin, Swiss Plateau, Molasse Basin
  • Germanic Basin, Lower Rhine Bay, Upper Rhine Rift, Mainz Basin, Thuringian Basin, Döhlen Basin
  • Fohnsdorf Basin, Klagenfurt Basin, Graz Basin, Vienna Basin
  • Hungarian Plain, Eger Basin, Prague Basin
  • Paris basin (loess), Lodève basin,

see also> Sedimentary basin, fault line, settlement, valley basin