Which country has the shortest medical education?

gms | German Medical Science

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest relating to this article.

literature

1.
Wijnen-Meijer M, Burdick W, Alofs L, Burgers C, ten Cate O. Stages and transitions in medical education around the world: Clarifying structures and terminology. Med Teach. 2013; 2 (35): 301-307. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2012.746449
2.
Duncan A, Poddar M. Preparation of IMGs for Residency Training in Canada. Can Med Educ J C. 2012; 3 (1): e78-79. Accessible at / available from: http://cmej.ca/cmej/index.php/cmej/article/view/209/91
3.
Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta Z a., Cohen J, Crisp N, Evans T, Fineberg H, Garcia P, Ke Y, Kelley P, Kistnasamy B, Meleis A, Naylor D, Pablos-Mendz A, Reddy S, Scrimshaw S, Sepulveda J, Serwadda D, Zurayk H. Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet. 2010; 376 (9756): 1923-1958. DOI: 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (10) 61854-5
4.
European Commission. Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications. Off J Eur Union. 2005; (255): 22-142.
5.
Cumming A, Ross M. The Tuning Project for Medicine - learning outcomes for undergraduate medical education in Europe. Med Teach. 2007; 29 (7): 636-641. DOI: 10.1080 / 01421590701721721
6.
Ross MT, Nikolic N, Peeraer G, Murt A, Kroica J, Elcin M, Hope D, Cumming AD. Report of the MEDINE2 Bachelor of Medicine (Bologna First Cycle) Tuning Project. Med Teach. 2014; 36 (4): 314-321. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2014.887836
7.
Huhn D, Junne F, Zipfel S, Duelli R, Resch F, Herzog W, Nikendei C. International medical students - a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties. GMS Z Med training. 2015; 32 (1): Doc9. DOI: 10.3205 / zma000951
8.
Boulet JR, Norcini JJ, Whelan GP, ​​Hallock JA, Seeling SS. Trends: The international medical graduate pipeline: Recent trends in certification and residency training. Health Aff. 2006; 25 (2): 469-477. DOI: 10.1377 / hlthaff.25.2.469
9.
Patrício M, den Engelsen C, Tseng D, Ten Cate O. Implementation of the Bologna two-cycle system in medical education: where do we stand in 2007? - results of an AMEE-MEDINE survey. Med Teach. 2008; 30 (6): 597-605. DOI: 10.1080 / 01421590802203512
10.
Patricio M, de Burbure C, Costa MJ, Schirlo C, ten Cate O. Bologna in Medicine Anno 2012: experiences of European medical schools that implemented a Bologna two-cycle curriculum - an AMEE-MEDINE2 survey. Med Teach. 2012; 34 (10): 821-832. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2012.716181
11.
World Federation for Medical Education. Postgraduate Medical Education WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement [Internet]. 2015. Ferney-Voltaire, Copenhagen: WFME Office; 2015. Accessible at / available from: http://wfme.org/standards/pgme/97-final-2015-revision-of-postgraduate-medical-education-standards/file
12.
Red Goose JI. The themes, institutions, and people of medical education research 1988-2010: content analysis of abstracts from six journals people of medical education research. Adv Heal Sci Educ. 2012; 17: 515-527. DOI: 10.1007 / s10459-011-9328-x
13.
Jaarsma D, Scherpbier A, van der Vleuten C, ten Cate O. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands. Med Teach. 2013; 2 (35): 277-281. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2012.749344
14.
Ten Cate O. Medical education in the Netherlands. Med Teach. 2007; 29 (8): 752-757. DOI: 10.1080 / 01421590701724741
15.
Nikendei C, Weyrich P, Nger JJ, Schrauth M. Medical education in Germany. Med Teach. 2009; 31 (7): 591-600. DOI: 10.1080 / 01421590902833010
16.
Brice J, Corrigan O. The changing landscape of medical education in the UK. Med Teach. 2010; 32 (9): 727-732. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2010.497828
17.
Prideaux D. Medical education in Australia: Much has changed but what remains? History and context. Med Teach. 2009; 31 (2): 96-100. DOI: 10.1080 / 01421590802509157
18.
Dezee KJ, Artino AR, Elnicki DM, Hemmer PA, Durning SJ. Medical education in the United States of America. Med Teach. 2012; 34 (7): 521-525. DOI: 10.3109 / 0142159X.2012.668248
19.
Mowery YM. A primer on medical education in the United States through the lens of a current resident physician. Ann Transl Med. 2015; 3 (18): 270.
20.
medschools.ac.uk [homepage on the Internet]. Graduate entry courses. London: Medical Schools Council; [cited 2016 Oct 25]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.medschools.ac.uk/STUDENTS/COURSES/Pages/Graduate.aspx
21.
Australian Government Department of Health. Medical Training Review Panel: Seventeenth Report. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of Health; 2014. Accessible at / available from: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/work-pubs-mtrp-17-toc
22.
foundationprogramme.nhs.uk [homepage on the Internet]. The Foundation Program. [cited 2016 Oct 25]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.foundationprogramme.nhs.uk/
23.
Wijnen-Meijer M, Cate OT, Rademakers JJ, van der Schaaf M, Borleffs JC. The influence of a vertically integrated curriculum on the transition to postgraduate training. Med Teach. 2009; 31 (11): 528-532. DOI: 10.3109 / 01421590902842417
24.
Watson A. What is the difference between a LAT post and a LAS post? [Internet]. BMJ Careers. 2004. Accessible at / available from: http://careers.bmj.com/careers/advice/view-article.html?id=563
25.
Morgan P. Locum doctors. BMJ. 1997; 314: S2-7074. DOI: 10.1136 / bmj.314.7074.2
26.
healthcareers.nhs.uk [homepage on the Internet]. Locum work for doctors. [cited 2016 Oct 25]. Accessible at / available from: https://www.healthcareers.nhs.uk/i-am/working-health/information-doctors/locum-work-doctors
27.
mcc.ca [homepage on the Internet]. Examinations. Ottawa: Medical Council of Canada; [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: http://mcc.ca/examinations/
28.
usmle.org [homepage on the Internet]. Federation of State Medical Boards and National Board of Medical Examiners. Philadelphia: United States Medical Licensing Examination: [cited 2016 Oct 25]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.usmle.org
29.
nbome.org [homepage on the Internet]. Examiners. COMLEX-USA. Chicago: National Board of Osteopathic Medical; [cited 2016 Oct 25]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.nbome.org/comlex-cbt.asp
30.
Association of American Medical Colleges. Roadmap to Residency: Understanding the Process of Getting into Residency. Washington / DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2015. Accessible at / available from: https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/2015 aamc roadmap to residency.pdf
31.
nrmp.org [homepage on the Internet]. National Resident Matching Program. Washington: The Match; [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.nrmp.org
32.
carms.ca [homepage on the Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.carms.ca/en/
33.
General Medical Council. Good Medical Practice. Manchester: General Medical Council; 2013. Accessible at / available from: http://www.gmc-uk.org/static/documents/content/GMP_.pdf
34.
Health Education England. The Gold Guide. A Reference Guide for Postgraduate Specialty Training in the UK. Sixth edition. Liverpool: Health Education England; 2016. Accessible at / available from: https://www.nwpgmd.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/Gold Guide 6th Edition February 2016.pdf
35.
ama.com.au [homepage on the Internet]. Competency-based training in medical education. Kingston: Australian Medical Association; 2010. Accessible at / available from: https://ama.com.au/position-statement/competency-based-training-medical-education-2010
36.
knmg.nl [homepage on the Internet]. Medische vervolgopleidingen. Utrecht: Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij dead before genes art; [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: https://www.knmg.nl/opleiding-herregistratie-carriere/medische-vervolgopleidingen/vervolgopleidingen.htm
37.
Wetten.overheid.nl [homepage on the Internet]. Centraal College Medical Specialisms. Kaderbesluit CCMS. Accessible at / available from: http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0033520/2007-10-20
38.
Miani C, Hinrichs S, Pitchforth E, Bienkowska-Gibbs T, Disbeschl S, Roland M, Nolte E. Best practice: Medical training from an international perspective. Santa Monica, Cambridge: RAND Corporation; 2015. Accessible at / available from: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR600/RR622/RAND_RR622.pdf
39.
Berberat PO, Harendza S, Kadmon M. Entrustable professional activities - visualization of competencies in postgraduate training. Position paper of the Committee on Postgraduate Medical Training of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA). GMS Z Med training. 2013; 30 (4): Doc47. DOI: 10.3205 / zma000890
40.
German Medical Association (Joint Association of the State Chambers of Physicians in Germany). (Model) Specialty Training Regulations. Berlin: German Medical Association; 2013. Accessible at / available from: http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/pdf-Ordner/Weiterbildung/MWBO_Englisch.pdf
41.
Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada. Members of the FMEC PG consortium; 2011. Accessible at / available from: https://afmc.ca/pdf/fmec/10_Maman%20Dogma_Length%20of%20Training.pdf
42.
royalcollege.ca [homepage on the Internet]. CanMEDS: Better standards, better physicians, better care. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC); [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/canmeds/canmeds-framework-e
43.
University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine. Postgraduate Medical Education. Assessment of Postgraduate Trainees: Guiding Principles. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, College of Medicine; 2015. Accessible at / available from: https://medicine.usak.ca/documents/policies/pgme/PGMEAssessmentGuideline2015.pdf
44.
royalcollege.ca [homepage on the Internet]. Competence by design. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC); [cited 2016 Oct 24]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/competence-design-e
45.
Englander R, Cameron T, Ballard AJ, Dodge J, Bull J, Aschenbrener CA. Toward a common taxonomy of competency domains for the health professions and competencies for physicians. Acad Med. 2013; 88 (8): 1088-1094. DOI: 10.1097 / ACM.0b013e31829a3b2b
46.
Holmboe ES, Edgar L, Hamstra S. The Milestones Guidebook. Chicago: ACGME; 2016. Accessible at / available from: http://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/MilestonesGuidebook.pdf
47.
Carraccio C, Englander R, Gilhooly J, Mink R, Hofkosh D, Barone MA, Holmboe ES. Building a Framework of Entrustable Professional Activities, Supported by Competencies and Milestones, to Bridge the Educational Continuum. Acad Med. 2017; 92 (3): 324-330. DOI: 10.1097 / ACM.0000000000001141
48.
gmc-uk.org [homepage on the Internet]. Approved curricula and assessment systems by specialty. General Medical Council (GMC); [cited 2016 Nov 21]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.gmc-uk.org/education/A-Z_by_specialty.asp
49.
knmg.nl [homepage on the Internet]. Overzicht opleidingen. Utrecht: Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot bevordering der Geneeskunst (KNMG); [cited 2016 Nov 21]. Accessible at / available from: https://www.knmg.nl/opleiding-herregistratie-carriere/geneeskundestudie/beroepskeuze/overzicht-filmpjes.htm
50.
medicalboard.gov.au [homepage on the Internet]. Medical Specialties and Specialty Fields. Melbourne: Medical Board of Australia; [cited 2016 Nov 30]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.medicalboard.gov.au/Registration/Types/Specialist-Registration/Medical-Specialties-and-Specialty-Fields.aspx
51.
abms.org [homepage on the Internet]. Specialty and Subspecialty Certificates. Chicago: American Board of Medical Specialties; [cited 2016 Nov 30]. Accessible at / available from: http://www.abms.org/member-boards/specialty-subspecialty-certificates/
52.
Morra D, Torgerson C, Loblaw A. Canadian Medical Residency Guide. Taking control of your future medical career and financial life. 9th edition. Pennsylvania: Medical Career Services; 2011. p.233. Accessible at / available from: https://medicine.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/faculty/medicine/departments/core-units/student-affairs/RBC-2011-Canadian-Medical-Residency-Guide. pdf
53.
royalcollege.ca [homepage on the Internet]. List of specializations. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC); [cited 2016 Dec 1]. Accessible at / available from: https://fellowshipmatters.royalcollege.ca/fellowshipmatters/en/index.html